Featuring discussions on the Early treatment of diabetic retinopathy, Teaching of ophthalmoscopy, Indian ophthalmic museums, and the Beginnings of vitrectomy in Melbourne.
To view a specific presentation, move the slider to the indicated time.
Introduction (starts at 0.00)
By Chair- Dr David Kaufman
Early treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy (starts at 1.30)
Presented by Dr Rahul Chakrabarti
Diabetic retinopathy was first described in 1855. Pituitary ablation aimed at regressing proliferative retinopathy was reported 100 years later with limited success and frequent complications. Gerd Meyer-Schwickerath used a carbon arc lamp and then Xenon photocoagulation to induce retinal burns to regress the retinopathy. Photocoagulation became widespread until the landmark clinical trial results of the Diabetic Retinopathy Study in 1960’s. Diagnostic fluorescein angiography imaged the pathological vascular anatomy which enabled earlier diagnosis of sight threatening lesions.
The Teaching of Ophthalmoscopy (starts at 25.26)
Presented by Prof Ian McAllister
An overview of the development of the various devices and aids utilised in the early teaching of ophthalmoscopy during the nineteenth century. These include instruments that allowed an observer to view the image and because of the design allowed a stabilized image or superior illumination and a fixed working distance. Atlases that demonstrated the disorders to be seen in the eye and finally practice models that replicated the optical characteristics of the eye and allowed the refractive characteristics and fundal images to be interchanged.
Ophthalmic Museums of India (starts at 49.40)
Presented by Kirsten Campbell
At the invitation of the All India Ophthalmic Society, museums in Delhi and Chennai were visited revealing a trove of history of Indian and Colonial ophthalmology.
Preserved patient histories and artworks of advanced disease feature in the extensive Elliot museum in Chennai named after the contribution of Elliot who developed the trephination operation for glaucoma.
Early Vitrectomy (starts at 108.00)
Presented by Dr David Kaufman
Some 50 years ago, Gerard Crock in the Melbourne University Department of Ophthalmology working with the innovative and brilliant engineers Jean Marie Parel and Ljubomir Pericec, developed the prototype of the Vitreous Infusion Suction Cutter – VISC. Prior to this, attempts to dissolve blood in the vitreous pharmacologically with Urokinase and Alpha Chymotrypsin failed together with manual removal of the vitreous and vitreous replacements. Parel then returned to work with Robert Machemer at Bascombe Palmer Institute in Miami. The remarkable transoceanic technology transfer between MUDO and Bascombe Palmer continued via mail and Parels’ temporary return to Melbourne.
George Bartisch – Renaissance author of ‘Ophthalmodouleia’
Although Bartisch was not academically trained, he was considered a highly skilled practitioner of ocular medicine and surgery. He is credited for producing the first Renaissance manuscript on ophthalmic disorders and eye surgery, “Ophthalmodouleia Das ist Augendienst“. It was published in 1583, and discussed ocular diseases, surgical techniques and instruments, and contained an ophthalmic atlas of 92 woodcuts depicting diseases of the eye. Bartisch is also remembered for his work in lithotomy for the removal of urinary calculi.
Anniversary of World War 1
On the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War it is worth recalling the devastating psychological and physical effects of chemical warfare. Mustard gas was widely used causing temporary and sometimes permanent incapacity from corneal exposure.
Dame Ida Mann, a leader in many fields of ophthalmology, is honoured at the RANZCO Head Office in Sydney with a poster presentation of her life and work as well as her original slit lamp in the Ida Mann conference room at the RANZCO office.
Dr. Kevin O’Day, an ophthalmologist in Victoria in the early and middle part of the last century, accumulated an eclectic mix of animal eyes which he had processed for histology. Whilst a few of these descriptions (platypus, albatross) contributed to knowledge of comparative ophthalmology by being published at the time most were not reported in any form. The collection of slides was hidden away for many years but recently was recovered in the basement of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital and upon request was loaned to Prof McMenamin in Anatomy and Development Biology for “rebirthing”. RANZCO museum had a desire to make some form of electronic resource of the collection available to members. Hence, we carefully selected the best 70 slides from 57 species from several thousand slides that we considered were well enough preserved and provided valuable morphological data. Slides were cleaned and then digitally scanned and this data will be available to college members as an online resource. Amongst the many slides are specimens of fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals, many of which would be difficult to source in the modern era. Many have likely never been carefully studied hence the digital resource will be a wealth of untapped scientific data as well being a legacy to this visionary ophthalmologist and possibly frustrated zoologist.
Prominant surgeons of the 20th century and their contribution to retinal surgery, from Gonin to Machemer. Delivered by Emil Kurniawan and David Kaufman of the Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, this exhibition detailed the origins of retinal detachment surgery from procedures dating pre-1920s to the current day.
The Discovery Of Phenylketonuria Recorded In Museum Paintings Of Patients Fundi
Hui Lin Yim- Royal Melbourne Hospital
The museum is fortunate to have a collection of the retinal paintings by Ilene Hill. These include fundi of children from the Kew Mental Asylum affected by Phenylketonuria PKU The discovery of the disease and history of the asylum and paintings was presented at RANZCO 2011.
‘Eye Surgery and Surgeons in New Zealand’ is an account of those who have practised ophthalmology in New Zealand from colonial times to recent times. Some early surgeons were colourful itinerants, who operated in hotel rooms and patients’ homes, and advertised like snake-oil salesmen. Others, such as Sir Lindo Ferguson in the early 1900s, were at the top of the specialty, and were huge contributors to medical education in New Zealand and Australia. All those who practised ophthalmology in the past are mentioned, together with the contributions that were made by many. As well as biographies of many characters, the book details the organization of ophthalmology in New Zealand, the remarkable ascent of academic ophthalmology since the late 1990s driven largely by the academic department in Auckland, the evolving relationship with Australian ophthalmology culminating in a joint College, and also some controversies fuelled by the news media, which have not always been kind to the specialty.
Prior to anterior segment and retinal photography, medical artists performed the tasks of documenting pathology. The College Archives in Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital Library contain fine examples of these works. With the development of the ophthalmoscope and slit lamp in the 19th century, ophthalmologists led by Vogt described in meticulous detail eye pathology laying the foundations of modern ophthalmology. Ilene Hill graduated at the Art Gallery of Victoria in company with many other well-known artists. The ophthalmologist Rupert Naylor who practiced in Collins Street, Melbourne taught her to use an ophthalmoscope and from there she had a fruitful career serving hospital Eye Departments and private practices in Melbourne over twenty years from 1940. Retinal paintings were charged at 4 guineas for two paintings. There are instances where a patient has been serially documented over the course of an illness. The collection of these paintings and drafts of her work are in the RANZCO Museum.
The molecular biography of John Dalton whose observations on colour vision has been verified 200 years after his death by examining DNA extracted from his preserved eye. The poster by Enis Kocak won the 2016 Jim Martin prize.